Home » APPENDIX » Appendix J






Table J1: Summary of the main recent studies dealing with employment creation in the wind energy sector

Geographical coverage
Main results
ADEME, 2008

ADEME&Vous. Stratégie & Études. Maîtrise de l’énergie et développement des énergies renouvelables.


Net production/

employment ratios

(imports have been



7,000 jobs in the manufacturing of wind turbines and major sub-components; 500 in companies operating wind energy farms.

AEE, 2007

Eólica 07. Todos los datos, análisis y estadísticas del sector eólico.


Questionnaires to

Spanish wind energy


complemented by information from official tax-related registries

There are more than 300 wind energy companies in Spain, creating 15,450 direct jobs and another 19,560 indirect jobs. This figure may go up to 58,800 if government objectives (20,000 MW in 2012) are achieved.

29.97 of the jobs are in the O&M sub-sector; 22.72 in the manufacturing of the machines; 19.42 in technical and engineering services; 9.12 in manufacturing; 3.24 in R&D and 4.53 in “others”.

Algoso D.; Rush, E., 2004

Job growth from renewable energy development in the Mid-Atlantic.

Mid-Atlantic States of the United States of America: Maryland, Delaware, New Jersey and Pennsylvania

The number of jobs was calculated with the I-O “Renewable Energy Policy Project”. The technical coefficients were estimated by means of a survey sent to 19 wind energy companies in 2001. Indirect employment figures derive from the Texas Comptroller’s office.

A capacity installed of 10,200 MW in 2015 would entail 11,100 year-long jobs in wind turbine manufacturing and installation; 740 permanent jobs in O&M and supporting areas; and around 12,700 indirect jobs. The jobs/MW ratio is of 2.48.

Choosing wind energy over a comparable amount of natural gas installations would create more than twice as many jobs.

DWIA, 2008

Sector statistics.


Questionnaires to Danish wind energy companies.

In 2006, 23,500 people worked for the wind energy sector (direct). 13,000 of these constitute direct employment from wind turbine and blade manufacturing companies.

European Commission, 2006

European Commission’s 2007 Impact Assessment on the Renewable Energy Roadmap.

European Union (27 Member States)

I-O tables, based on Green-X, PRIMES and ASTRA models.

Meeting the 20 RE target in 2020 will entail a net increase of 650,000 jobs in the European Union, half of which may come from the biomass sector.

The increase of RE will favour changes in the composition of the labour market, rather than its size.

European Parliament, 2007

Employment potential of renewable forms of energy and increased efficiency of energy use.

European Union

Meta-analysis of past employment studies.

A more rapid switch to renewables appears to have an unambiguous benefit in terms of overall employment.

The growth of a particular segment of the clean energy business (renewables, energy efficiency or sustainable transport) is often partially dependent on growth in other areas, since the markets for products and technologies are linked.

Workers that lose their jobs in the fossil fuel industry should have the opportunity to retrain for employment in the clean industry.

EREC, 2007

New renewable energy target for 2020 – a Renewable Energy

Roadmap for the EU.

European Union (15 Member States)

I-O tables, based on Saphire model.

The wind energy sector will account for around 184,000 jobs in 2010 (direct, indirect and induced effects) and 318,000 in 2020 (if the 20 RE target is reached).

EWEA, 2003

Survey for Wind Energy - The Facts.

European Union (15 Member States)

Survey to wind energy manufacturers, supplemented by the use of technical coefficients.

Direct employment in wind turbine manufacturing in Europe for 2002 accounted for 30,946 jobs; turbine installation for another 14,649; O&M for 2,768.

EWEA and Greenpeace, 2005

Wind Force, 12. A blueprint to achieve 12 of the world’s electricity from wind power by 2020.


Meta-analysis of past employment studies.

2.3 million jobs will be linked to the wind energy sector worldwide in 2020, if the 12 target is reached.

444,000 jobs in North America; 222,000 in Europe; 251,800 in Latin America; 44,400 in Africa, 44,400 in the Middle East; 325,600 in Eastern European and transition economies; 444,000 in China; 148,000 in East Asia; 266,400 in South Asia and 148,000 in OECD Pacific.

Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, 2006

Renewable Energy: Employment Effects. Impact of the expansion of renewable energy on the German labour market.


Comprehensive study, using a questionnaire and extensive theoretical models (I-O table). The study presents net results on the overall economy; direct, indirect and induced impacts.

The wind energy sector is responsible for around 64,000 jobs in Germany (2004 data). Half of them are direct jobs.

By 2030, around 300,000 new jobs will be created in the renewable energy sources sector. The net impact can be situated between 80,000 and 130,000, depending on the future energy prices.

Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, 2008

Kurz – und langfristige Auswirkungen des Ausbaus der erneuerbaren Energien auf den deutschen Arbeitsmarkt. Interim report.


Update of the 2006 report (questionnaire + I-O table).

84,300 employees in the wind energy sector by the end of 2007 (direct + indirect).

Kammen, D.; Kapadia, K.; Fripp, M., 2004

Putting Renewables to Work: How many jobs can the clean industry generate?

EU and the United States of America

Meta-analysis of past employment studies.

The renewable energy sector generates more jobs per MW of power installed, per unit of energy produced and per $ of investment than the fossil-fuel based energy sector.

The distribution of employment benefits across regions can vary considerably.

In the US, a 20 RE share by 2020 can create between 176,440 and 240,850 new jobs, as compared with a figure of 86,369 in the business as usual scenario.

The jobs/MW ratio for wind power ranges between 0.71 and 2.79.

Lehr et al, 2008

Renewable energy and employment in Germany.


Comprehensive study, using a questionnaire and extensive I-O tables, INFORGE and PANTA RHEI models.

Gross employment figures in 2004: 63,944 workers.

The wind sector lacks skilled personnel, but the situation is expected to improve in 2010.

Global market share of wind energy products coming from Germany was 40 in 2004, and is expected to decrease to between 15 and 20 in 2020.

Pedden, M., 2005

Analysis: Economic Impacts of Wind Applications in Rural Communities.

United States of America.

Meta-analysis of 13 studies.

Wind installations create significant direct impact on the economies of the local communities, especially those with few supporting industries.

The number of local and construction and operation jobs created by a wind energy installation depends upon the skills available in the local community

The jobs/MW ratio is highly variable: from 0.36 to 21,37.

Pfaffenberger, W.; Jahn, K.; Djourdjin, M., 2006

Renewable energies – environmental benefits, economic growth and job creation.

European Union, with emphasis in Germany.

Meta-analysis of previous studies.

All studies predict a growth in gross employment

The net employment impacts are substantially less, and can even be negative.

None of the studies has taken into account the recent increase of energy prices, which will tend to increase the positive effect of RES on employment.


Green jobs: towards sustainable work in a low-carbon world. Preliminary report.


Meta-analysis of previous studies.

The wind energy sector created 300,000 jobs in 2006 worldwide.

The jobs/MW ratio in manufacturing, construction and installation can be situated between 0.43 and 2.51; 0.27 for O&M and 0.70 to 2.78 in total.

Whiteley, O. et al, 2004

MITRE project. Meeting the targets and putting RE to work”. Overview report.

European Union (15 Member States).

I-O tables, based on Saphire, model.

The wind energy sector will create between 182,000 and 282,000 new jobs in the EU (net effect; direct, indirect and induced) by 2020 –current policies or advanced renewable strategy-.

After 2010, the employment levels will be maintained only if the sector is capable of keeping its leading role and finding new markets outside the EU.



  Acknowledgements | Sitemap | Partners | Disclaimer | Contact

coordinated by


supported by

Intelligent Energy Europ

The sole responsibility for the content of this webpage lies with the authors. It does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Communities. The European Commission is not responsible for any use that maybe made of the information contained therein.