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Concluding Remarks

Experience and studies provide positive evidence on the feasibility and solutions for integrating the expected wind power capacity in Europe for 2020, 2030 and beyond. Today, the immediate questions concern how to address a number of issues in the most cost-effective manner.

There is now a clearer understanding regarding the behaviour of aggregated wind plants at the power system level, as well as how system costs evolve with increasing wind energy penetration. In the range of expected wind energy penetration levels for the coming decades, the cost increments for additional reserves in the system, to deal with increased variability, remain moderate. Additional impacts that wind power may impose on the system, due to its variability and limited predictability, should be reduced by:

  • Making use of geographical aggregation;
  • Improved control of wind plants both on local and system levels;and
  • Using state-of-the-art forecasting, monitoring and communication techniques.

Specific grid code requirements are now being imposed for wind farms, taking into account the continuing development of wind power plant capabilities. In this respect, a more proactive involvement of the wind power industry in the development of harmonised grid code requirements in Europe is essential.

A substantial upgrade of transmission networks is required, and the creation of a trans-national offshore grid would bring additional benefits. This network development goes hand-in-hand with the necessary upgrades to achieve a more efficient European Internal Electricity Market and improved competition in European power markets. In this respect, a definite challenge is the creation of appropriate market rules, including incentives to make power generation and transmission evolve in a direction that facilitates variable output and decentralised generation, by increasing flexibility and providing additional network capacity, not only within the national grids, but also at the transnational level.

There is also a need for studies at the European level to provide a technical and scientific basis for grid upgrades and market organisation.

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